Kalinin Nuclear Power Plant is one of the most important electricity generators in Central Russia. The plant is situated in the north of the Tver Region, 125 km outside Tver. The decision to build the Kalinin Nuclear Power Plant was made in May 1970, at a meeting of the Scientific and Technical Advisory Council of the USSR Energy Ministry. It was deemed necessary to fill the shortfall in Central Russia's energy supply.

The general design of the Kalinin NPP was done by the Gorky section of the Teploelekroproekt, (which is now the Nizhny Novgorod engineering company Atomenergoproekt), the design of the main power generating units was done by the experienced team from the Gidropress design centre, and the scientific lead was taken by the Kurchatov Institute of Nuclear Energy.

Currently the Kalinin NPP comprises three power generation units running VVER-1000 reactors. The plant's design included the construction of two phases of two power generation units equipped with 1000-megawatt light water-cooled reactors (VVER).

The construction of the first unit began in 1974. It began producing energy on May 9, 1984. Construction began on the second unit in November 1981, and on December 11, 1986 it was connected to the grid.

The third power generation unit at the Kalinin NPP came online on December 16, 2004. It has a 1000 mW commercial water-cooled reactor. This model of reactor is the current gold standard in nuclear reactors internationally. They are distinguished by their high individual capacity and economic efficiency. They concentrate the finest achievements in physics, engineering concepts, material use and technological interaction with radioactive materials.

Currently work is underway on the construction of a fourth power generating unit at the Kalinin NPP, which is due to come on stream in 2011.

In the past 25 years the Kalinin NPP has produced over 300 billion kW of electricity.

The nuclear power plant powers the unified energy system for Central Russia thanks to its open distribution system. The electricity produced is transmitted to Tver, Moscow, St Petersburg, Vladimir and Cherepovets, by high voltage cables.